Larry Spring Atom Intro
My Basic Discovery
About April 1,1989 I, Larry Spring, postulated that a proton and an electron could weld together by unlike charged particle attraction, and become a neutron. About six months later I read in a physics book by Isaac Asimov that a neutron has a half-life of 17 minutes, and when it separates, it becomes a proton and an electron. It would then be a hydrogen atom. My original idea of welding together was downgraded to simply attaching to each other. Isaac Asimov's chart simply added strength to my original postulation, plus the ability to separate again.

With this understanding of the neutron, and my analysis that the proton part of the neutron would pull toward the center of the nucleus of protons due to its strong gravitational attraction, and the electron would stick outward due to its extremely light weight. I postulated that the neutron would be a barrier keeping the rest of the electrons away from the nucleus.
Ceramic Magnet Demostration
I have never read or heard this stated by any one else. I appear to be the first person to recognize this atom configuration, and publish it in my book entitled Now I See, copyright 1990, by Larry Spring.

Shortcomings...
   of the Bohr Atom

This neutron barrier around the nucleus of the atom gives the Larry Spring Atom flexibility not otherwise possible. The Niels Bohr Atom used fixed electron orbits and the laws of mass and motion -- similar to the planets around the sun -- to keep the electrons from being drawn to the nucleus of protons, which would thereby collapse the atom. Without recognizing the neutron barrier, Niels Bohr had no other alternative. He had to orbit the electrons to make his model of the atom operate.

Several other actions within the Bohr Atom do not fit my observations of the way things work. I recognize no force that could drive electrons at an exact speed or in a circular orbit around the atom nucleus. Any increase in electron speed would spiral the electron away from the nucleus, while a reduced speed would cause it to spiral inward. Changing speed of an orbiting electron, when it jumped from one orbit to another, would be essential for the Bohr atom to function. This speed change of the electron does not fit logic. Also, jumping from one fixed orbit to another and nowhere in between is difficult to imagine.

A Bohr atom can not voluntarily expand or contract, so heat is described as momentum of the atom, and expansion of a container is due to this momentum, leaving space between the moving atoms. These heat-driven atoms can be visualized only by a person lacking the true understanding of heat.

Heat is a range of electromagnetic energy called infrared. Radiated electromagnetic energy is really spherical magnetic fields driven from a conductor that is carrying an alternating electrical current. These free-flying radiated magnetic fields drive electrons one direction or the other in every conductor or insulator that cuts their magnetic lines of force. The direction they drive the electrons depends on the polarity orientation of the radiated magnetic field. Electrons in an insulator are excited but do not move from atom to atom. This observation by Larry Spring can readily be recognized when one understands how television antenna transmission and reception work.

These high speed passing magnetic fields cannot drive a neutral atom into motion. Heat cannot drive a neutral atom. But heat can, and does, drive the electrons within the atom into a back and forth motion, causing the atom itself to expand. An atom in air would expand, and rise seeking equilibrium, depending on its weight in relation to its expanded volume.

Heat is pure energy -- a moving magnetic field. Heat adds no weight, only expanded volume due to added electron activity within the atom. Electron activity within the atoms of a conductor can also be caused by an electrical current driven by any electromotive force. Electrons in a string of insulator atoms can only be activated by moving magnetic fields passing across that string of atoms.

It takes about 10 billion atoms in a row to make a resonant length for the electrical current running back and forth in an 8 ft long antenna element which is transmitting a TV Channel 3 signal. Scaling this figure down to the resonant radiator of white light, it would take one thousand atoms in a row... and in order to radiate, the electrical current would have to double back on its own path. Electrons jumping from one DC orbit to another, as in the Bohr atom, does not fit reality as taught to me by the energy itself.

The Spring Atom Ceramic Disk Magnet Demonstration
This neutron barrier action I can readily demonstrate with disk magnets riding on a pane of glass set in a frame. The pane of glass is covered with tiny glass orbs like in the reflecting paint used for the center line of highways. The tiny glass orbs act as a dry lubricant that cuts friction almost to zero. The magnets are riding on the spherical glass beads which reduce friction to almost zero. Any movement of the disk magnets on the glass is very lively.

Ceramic Magnet Demostration This is a Larry Spring experiment (consisting of various self-arrangements of ceramic disk magnets on glass window pane in a wood frame) to learn more about the proton, neutron, and electron orientation in an atom or molecule. Magnetic fields have been substituted for the electrical fields. Individual magnets have been turned upside down to use the magnetic field of attraction to simulate the gravitational pull very heavy protons have on each other.

A north side, south side pair of magnets simulates the neutron which, in an atom, is really just a proton and an electron held together by the electrical field of attraction. N in the diagram indicates the north pole of the magnets. The available magnetic (heat) energy determines the activity space. Gravity holds exceedingly heavy protons and neutrons together. The negative electron half of the neutron is very light, so it remains on the outside of the nucleus, and repels other negative electrons.

A neutron barrier is composed of a neutral combination of a proton and an electron, with the very heavy proton end pulled inward toward the nucleus of heavy protons by mutual gravity, while the very light electron end protrudes outward, and repels the rest of the negatively charged electrons. The electrical fields of the protons and electrons in the atom overlap and cancel... leaving only gravity as a binding force. Gravity is accumulative. It cannot be canceled. The whole atom is electrically neutral.

Electron field repulsion leaves a vacuum interior space within the atom in which the electrons can move freely, governed only by the electrical fields and the passing magnetic fields.

Larry Spring's Model of a Representative Atom
This model depicts only the solid, liquid and gaseous state of an atom. The nucleus, and neutron barrier, is shown in later more complex atom diagrams. Heavier atoms would simply have more protons, neutrons and electrons.

Representative of Spring Atom Outer Space

Gas: Compressable, Transparent, highly expanded due to no weight from above, and pumped up by Mimetic energy electron drive. Longer electron paths radiate longer wavelengths at slower frequencies. Electrons are very light mass. It takes energy to move them back and forth. This is a vibration. Circles around the electron paths are magnetic lines of force as discovered by Oersted. Magnetic energy is radiated from atom to atom. Electrical fields move with the negatively charged electrons.

Gas: Compressable, Transparent. Magnetic lines offorce around electron padhs show magnetic energy (heat ) driving electrons. Electrical fields are not shown. expansion of a gas atom is possibly limitless when supplied with a limitless amount of heat, and no confinement to the atom.

Liquid: Noncompressable. Transparent. Medium magnetic heat driving electron vibrations.Gravity holds heavy protons together. Earth's gravity keeps nucleus low.

Solid: Low heat magnetic field. Translucent cubic crystaline pattern. Heavy protons on bottom. Some electron vibration.

Solid: -273degrees centigrade. Opaque. Shrunk to a minimum size. Shows electrons and electrical field Heavy protons on the bottom. No magnetic agitation (heat). Superconductive if metal.

The Spring Atom Expansion
Robert Boyle, in the year 1675, arrived at some very valid figures relative to the expansion of gases. He recognized heat as motion of the atom itself, which was the smallest known particle of mass at that time. It was over 200 years later that the positive proton and negative electron was discovered. It was too early in the history of physics for Robert Boyle to see the whole picture, and even today there are many of the pieces of the puzzle to be discovered. We now know that magnetic fields drive positive protons one way and negative electrons the opposite way.

Heat would cause the atom to expand, and with excess heat, the atom would expand beyond its ability to control its parts. Heat expansion of the individual atom is not found in physics books that I have read to date, January 29,1993. Expansion of the atom is not feasible until the neutron barrier protecting the nucleus is recognized, as it was by me, Larry Spring, on April 1,1989.

The interior of the atom is mostly vacuum space, with a few very tiny light particles of mass with a negative charge called electrons, floating in space within the atom, and repelled from each other, because electrically like charged particles repel. The nucleus is a clump of spherical protons and neutrons held together by gravitational attraction toward each other. The positive protons would fly away from each other due to the repulsion of electrically like charged particles, but they can not overcome the gravitational attraction of the heavy protons and neutrons, each of which is 1840 times as heavy as one electron. Furthermore the negative charge of the electrons cancels the positive charge of the protons, so the whole atom is neutral. Gravity of the atom has not changed, and passing radiating magnetic fields, such as heat, light and TV signal, only activate the electron motion within the atom into a back and forth movement. Increased electron movement causes expansion of the atom without adding weight. This causes the heated atom in air to rise seeking equilibrium.

Balloons seeking equilibrium

Atoms seeking equilibrium
Expanded atoms, like expanded hot air balloons seek equilibrium with their heavy gondolas (and nucleuses on the bottom towards the earth.
The electrons within the atom are driven sideways, 90 degrees to the direction of travel of the passing magnetic field which way (left or right, up or down) the electrons move is determined by the polarity or orientation of the passing magnetic field. When an electron in an atom moves, it forms a magnetic field around its path, and drives off (radiates) that field when the electron returns on the same path. This is an alternating electrical current within the atom. When there is a conducting path of metal containing free electrons capable of moving from atom to atom, that path can be extended from a fraction of an inch to many feet, thus producing long conducting paths and low frequencies. This is due to the time it takes for the electrical current to go to the end of the metalic conductor and back, traveling at nearly the speed of light, which is 186,000 miles per second.

The Niels Bohr atom's nucleus would have to remain in the center of the orbiting electrons, and the atom could not expand or contract The Larry Spring atom, on the other hand, can expand or contract, and the heavy nucleus can move to any position in the atom that existing forces dictate. When expanded and rising in the atmosphere, an atom could look like a hot air baloon, with its gondola at or near the bottom of the atom. The atom would know which way is up, and trees using these atoms could tell how to grow upward. Growing on a slowly spinning horizontal disk, centrifugal force would move the nucleus outward, and the plant would grow toward the center. If Earth's gravity, and the centrifugal force of the horizontal spinning disk were equal, the plant would grow at a 45 degree angle toward the center of the disk. This demonstration I saw at the San Francisco Exploratorium a couple years ago, about 1992.

The Larry Spring atom also allows for easy orientation of the nucleus and electrons spaced within the vacuum interior of the atom. When an electromotive force drives electrons into one end of a conductor, the protons within the atoms will be attracted toward the source of the electrons, while the electrons will be repelled toward the far side of the atoms. This proton, electron rearrangement within the atom will organize the normally random, undetectable magnetic field of the atom into concentric rings around the conductor. If the electrical current in the conductor is reversed, the proton electron arrangement in the conductor atoms is reversed, and the concentric magnetic field lines around the conductor are also reversed. These magnetic field lines of force can be traced with a compass needle all the way around the conductor. The compass will also tell you which way the electrical current is moving in the conducting wire as per the Right Hand Rule.__LS



For more information on Common Sense Physics contact:
Larry Spring · 225 East Redwood Ave · Fort Bragg, CA 95437
(707) 964-4700


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